II. UNDERWATER PARKS AND MANAGEMENT
II.3 Budget and Management
II.4 Education and Ministry of Environment
II.5 Monitoring Studies
III. GÖKÇEADA UNDERWATER MARINE PARK
III.1 Park Location and Legal Frame
III.3 Social Structure
III.4 Climate and Oceanographic Features
III.6 Water Procurement
III.7 Infrastructure Institute
III.8 Unique Geologic and Geolorphologic Structures
III.9 Coastal Structures
III.10 Fauna and Flora
III.11 History and Archeologic Value
III.12 Zone Planning
IV. Organisation in the Park Site and Budget
IV.1 Management Building
IV.2 Marine Structures that are planning to build
IV.3 Management of the Marine Park
V. WORKS AFTER THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE MARINE PARK
GOKCEADA MARINE RESERVE IN THE MEDIA
RULES THAT SHOULD BE OBEYED BY THE DIVERS IN THE MARINE PARK
I . INTRODUCTION
Marine Park is established for various reasons such as to protect the specific marine site, to guarantee the habitats which are important for the endangered and endemic species, to show the underwater beauty to the public, to increase the public awareness on the marine conservation issue, to conduct marine scientific studies.
During the marine park selection, the unspoiled areas with the rich biodiversity are preferred.
There are countless number of marine parks all around the world and this areas especially provide to protect the endangered species. Park sites are also used in an educational manner for the primary and secoundry schools as well as various factors like diving and environment education.
There hasn’t got any marine park in Turkey which has a coastline of 8353 km. Marine parks are also raise the tourism income. Moreover it is a way to educate the public. Its targeted to raise the protected coastal areas from %0.2 to %10 in 2010. Many international institute also request to increase the marina parks by establishing marine parks in the %20 of the marine area. Furthermore many countries conduct special programs for the marine parks.
II. UNDERWATER PARKS AND MANAGEMENT
Underwater parks are formed from various protection zones. These are; nuclear zone that activities are limited and surrounding tampon zones which do permits or not, some activites like swimming and fishing. Nuclear zone can be more than one in some areas depending on the environmental features. Again nuclear zone can change ovet time. (Fig.1).
Fig 1a: Marine Underwater parks can be with one nuclear zone or without it or with more than one. 1b: Migration fact of nuclear zone in marine underwater parks due to the marine hydrodynamic and other factors.
Each zone is showed via buoy which can be lighted (Photo1). These lighted buoys take its energy from the sun and is placed to the corners and is an alerter for the human and marine transportations.
Determining activities for the each zone is very important for the visitors. For example, even though the nuclear zone is the densest area for biodiversity and natural beauties, we can only use this area for scientific studies. Planning each zone in regards to the allowable activities can only be possible after conducting biologic, meteorological, hydrographic, geologic studies.
As a principle, activities other than the scientific ones are illegal in the nuclear zone. Tampon zones can be visited together with the guide. In this area, scuba and snorkeling can be done with a guide and should be paid. There are also limitations for the other activities like surf, jet ski and ext. Fishing is illegal in this area. Coastal usage is closed with all meanings. Swimming and entering beach zone are illegal. Coastal area is open only in the cases of environmental education and diving groups under the control of park management. Diving groups can stay under water max 2 hours. Signboards give information about the park site and prohibitions for each zone. (Photo 2).
II. 2. Structuring
Coastal part of the underwater park area needs a structure which allows conducting educational programs on environment as well as gives visitor informations and can be used for the scientific reasons. This structure will be responsible on the management of the marine park, providing some services for the diving groups, environmental education and scientific monitoring. Management of the marine park and continues of the activities is not easy. Thus 3 to 5 people of staff and a building with two floors is needed.
Environmental education is the most important activities of the marine park (Photo 3).
II.3. Budget and Management
The most important expense is staff costs. When we look at the other examples of marine parks around the world, this work is supported by the ministry of Environment. Recently, there are high amount of demand on scuba diving. In Medes Underwater park 53000 people per year do scuba diving in Spain. Also in the Port Cross Underwater Park in France, 80000 people dived and In Ustica Marine Park, Italy 2000 people dived in a year. The incomes from these divings are a lot. You can see the group who is doing the marine ecology study in Miramare underwater park, Italy (Photo 4)
II.4. Education and Ministry of Environment
In the underwater marine park, the education on marine life is given either by being the marine observer during the snorkeling activity or in the aquarium which is placed in the building on the coast. The concept of the education program is illuminating the public on marine food chain, pollution parameters, marine flora and fauna(Foto 5).
II. 5. Monitoring Studies
Marine organisms in the underwater marine parks are determined correctly and are monitored month-month, year to year. This monitoring is especially done by comparing the areas in the park area and outside it (Foto 6). According to the monitoring studies, zone activities revise again and visitor number is beared in mind.
IV. GÖKÇEADA UNDERWATER MARINE PARK
Gökçeada is the biggest island of Turkey and located in the Aegean Sea, on the west part in( Fig.2 ). Island shows terrestrial, coastal and marine disruption due to the over development and uncontrolled settlement. Fishing is one of the most important income. There are rich fish beds between Gökçeada and Saroz Bay. Around the island there are species like monk seals exhibits. The marine life of the island is rich on fauna and flora. Saros Bay and Gökçeada are also on the way of the migration path of the marine lifes between Black Sea and Mediterranean. This area is like a marine museum. Gökçeada is easy to reach and this situation is especially important for the environmental education.
Fig.2 Regional Geographic Location of Gökçeada Underwater Marine Park
III.1. Park Area Location and Legal Frame
Gökçeada Marine Park is placed on the northeast coast of the island and located between Kaleköy and Kuzulimanı. Park area possess 1 mile coastal zone from Yıldız Bay to Yelkenkaya. The area is protected from to coastal to the 200 mt off the sea as its shown in Figure 3.
The coordinates of the park area is shown in figure 4 and is located in the map of Çanakkale H 13 – c2 threader in 1:25 000 scale topographic map. The boarders of the park area is:
1.Point : 06 800 -54 800, 2. Point : 06 950-55 050, 3. Point: 07 300-55 000, 4. Point: 07 300 – 55 025, 5.Point: 07 575 -54 925, 6. Point 07 725 – 55 100, 7.Point :07 750 – 55 075 , 8. Point: 08 075-55 200, 9.Point: 08 075- 55 300, 10.Point: 08 500-55 350
Correspondance and negotiations have been done in 1997-1999 and necessary permissions has been taken. Gokceada underwater marine park was announced in the 23618 official gazette in 21 Feb 1999 and fishing was prohibited in the marine park.
Şekil 4: Gokceada Underwater Marine Park boundaries with its coordinates
You can go to Gökçeada from Çanakkale and Kabatepe by the ferryboats. The ferryboat arrives to Kuzuliman and from there on you can reach to the Gokceada city centre from the 8km motorway.
For visiting the Marine Park, first you need to come to Kaleköy which is 5km away from the city centre and then follow the walkway for 700m from here to Yıldız Bay. There are several bus to the island from Istanbul and Canakkale as well.
There is also an airstrip in the island and it is opened to the private landings.
III.3. Social Features
Population number of Gökçeada is around 20 000. Population is diverse in the villages of the island. Villages of the island are; Kaleköy , Bademli, Zeytinli, Şahinkaya, Dereköy and Uğurlu. The oldest inhabitant area is Kaleköy and it hasn’t loss its historical value yet (Photo 7). Other Rum villages in the island have also carried its old village architecture. The most important income of this island is fishing and tourism. Moreover, olive farming and viticulture is also an important income sources.
III.4. Climate Features
Gokceada has a mild climate conditions. Summers are hot and warm, winter seasons are rainy and cold. The island takes 700-800mm rain per year. The dominant wind direction is north and this wind can sometimes create problem for the ferryboat operations.
III.5. Hydrographic and Oceanographic Features
Surface water temperature of Gökçeada is around 24 0C during the summer. Surface water salinity is %0 33-34 whereas in the deep water it becomes %0 37-38 dir. Strong currents aren’t observed during the summer periods. There is a profound cave in in the area related with the break along the Saroz Bay. Nuclear zone of this marine park is shallow and the depth reaches to 10m. Tampon zones possess deeper bottom structure and can reach to 30m.
III.6. Water Supply
There is no problem on the water supplies of the island. There are 3 barrages, countless amounts of springs and water sources. Moreover, the island is rich on fresh water sources. In Photo 8, you can see the pond which has done for watering as well as for drinking at Kefalos way.
III.7. Infrastructure Institute
One government hospital, teacher school, high and primary school and fishery research unit (belong to Istanbul University) are presented in the island. There is also a service area of Ministry of Education and Ministry of Justice in Uğurlu. It is possible to see the military structures everywhere in the island, although these places are away from the popular areas that tourists visit. Operating pensions in the island is one of the popular jobs. There are pension services in Bademli Village. However there hasn’t got any big hotel other than the Municipality Hotel.
III.8. Unique Geologic and Geomorphologic Formations
The island is formed from the greywacke which belongs to the early geologic period. Greywacke from the underwater volcanoes and settled shallow marine residuals are the widespread ones in the island. Column like cooling formations of volcanic greywacke are unique geologic formations. These cooling formations are widespread in the area of marine park (Photo 9). Moreover, giant bowls are also unique geologic formations of Şahinkaya. There are black mud formations around Tuz Lake coast in Kefalos and people use this mud as a cure. This lake host many species of birds which are under threat.
III.9. Coast Form
The coasts are blocky and pebbly. Sandy beaches are only observed in Kefalos, Kuzulimanı, Yıldız Bay and Uğurlu. Kefalos beach is the best sandy beach of the island and stretches for 700m (Photo10). There hasn’t got any hotel yet on this coastline, only daily tourism occurs. The beach sands evolved from the wave erosion of the sandstones. Rocky parts of the sea hosts rich amount of fauna and flora.
III.10. Fauna and Flora
In the coast area of Gokceada underwater Marine Park, there is a zone formed from algae and sea grasses. In this zone, green, brown and red algae species are observed. In the inner parts, there is a zone, rich with crustaceans. In this zone, pelagic and benthic fish groups are rich in number. Marine mammals and seals are observed frequently in the region, especially dolphins. You can see the birds which are under protection in Tuz Lake. This lake hosts many organisms and provide salt for the villagers. Pre-inventory has been conducted for fauna and flora in the region and 180 marine species were counted. Marine Park area will be monitored and compared with its outside areas. It is also reported that sperm whale observations has been done during May-June in the region.
III.11. History- Its Archeological Value
The island hosts countless amounts of underwater and terrestrial cultural structures. There is an old monastery in the marine park area. It’s one of the targets to protect and use this monastery. You can see the volunteers and the monastery in Photo 12.
III. 12. Zone Planning
In Gokceada Marine Park, there are two zones: nuclear and tampon zone. You can see the permitted activities according to the zones in the table. Tampon zone is meant to protect the nuclear zone.
Zone Description and Its Management
Activities Nuclear Zone Tampon Zone
Swimming N( No ) N
Fishing With Hook N N
Wind Surf N Y ( Yes )
Jet Ski N N
Anchoring N N
Passing with Boat N Y
Tanning N N
Scuba Diving N Y ( With a guide )
Snorkeling N Y ( With a guide )
Coast Trip N ( With a guide ) Y
Scientific research Y Y